Open Access Original Research Article

The Action and Interaction of Different Planting Dates and Organic Fertilizers on the Growth and Yield of Okra Plants

Manal M. H. Gad-El Moula, A. A. A. Mohamed, A. T. Elmorsy, A. A. Farag

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/JAERI/2018/38255

A field experiment was conducted, at the Central Laboratory for Agricultural Climate-Dokki, Giza, during two seasons (2014 and 2015), to study the effect of three Planting dates (February 15th, March 15th, and April 15th) and four organic fertilizers (Cattle manure, compost, rabbit manure and poultry manure) and their interaction, on the growth and yield of okra Abelmoschus esculentus (L.).

Data on the effect of each and combined treatments were collected on: vegetative growth (Plant height, number of leaves per plant, leaf area, flower number, total chlorophyll, fresh and dry weight); nutrients content (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium) and total yield. The soil and air temperature during the experiment were recorded. The experimental design was a split- plot with three replicates.

The obtained results indicated that April 15th gave the highest yield followed by March 15th, with significant differences between them. Using poultry manure gave the highest yield followed by rabbit manure with significant differences between them. The lowest yield was found with compost treatment. The interaction between planting date and organic fertilizer was found at April 15th, with poultry manure, which gave the highest yield during both experimental seasons. The economic assessment of costs and returns from different treatments, were calculated. Gross margin per feddan (4200 m2) were analyzed using yield data, price structures and production costs. The poultry manure had the highest gross margin for February 15thwith poultry manure (5010 and 5630 Egyptian pound (LE) for the first and second seasons, respectively).

According to the benefit cost ratio (BCR) indicators cattle manure (OF1) in the 15th of February (D1) is the most profitable and cost-effective rate of producing okra that would be beneficial to the farmer in the study area in both seasons with 1.86 and 1.98 respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Performance of Traditional Post-harvest Practices on the Development of Callosobruchus maculatus in Vigna unguiculata and Phaseolus vulgaris Seeds in Paoua (Central African Republic)

L. Aba Toumnou, S. P. Wango, O. Semboli, S. F. - Bolevane Ouatinam, M. Sembene

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JAERI/2018/38370

Cowpea seeds are an important source of nutrients for human and animal. However, part of the seed production is lost due to insect attacks, mainly by the weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), (Fabricius) a major pest of stored cowpeas. The objective of this work was to study the impact of traditional pest management on the development of C. maculatus infestation. The insects were collected on 100 g of infected seeds of Vigna unguiculata and Phaseolus vulgaris in post-harvest traditional systems from farmers in different villages of Paoua. The insect’s size was determinate with the standard DSLR camera combined into a 3D model using a computer. A Generalize Linear Model (GLM) with the Poisson error distribution was fitted to data to analyse the impact of storage conditions on the insect growth in the presence of the two species of bean. The results of analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the C. maculatus development in traditional post-harvest practice showed that the body length of C. maculatus was a very highly significant variation according to the traditional post-harvest practice (P < 0.001). Though the effect on the body width of the interaction count, storage and species was a very highly significant variation (P < 0.001) and implies that the body length of C. maculatus development depends on the nature of traditional post-harvest practice. Vigna unguiculata is the most sensible to the attack of C. maculatus for these two post-harvest practices (polypropylene bag and plastic barrel). Though the plastic barrel limits the development of C. maculatus in the sense of length and width.

Open Access Original Research Article

Social Capital and Expenditure on Farm Inputs: A Case Study of Paddy Farming Households in Kilombero Valley, Tanzania

John Msinde

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JAERI/2018/38208

Social Capital refers to the networks of relationships that are built on trust to facilitate collective action in a community. The role of social capital in enhancing various aspect of farm production has become increasingly important. This article aims at examining the effect of structural and cognitive dimensions of social capital on expenditure on farm inputs in Kilombero Valley, Tanzania. Data was collected in the 2013/14 farming season in five selected villages of the study area from 309 randomly selected households. A structured questionnaire was the main tool for data collection. Analysis involved the use a Tobit regression which considers censored dependent variable. The results shows that farm households in Kilombero have cooperative attributes based on strong ties, kinships and networks. Households with high membership density and which invest on trust relationships were more likely to have increased spending on farm inputs. The other cognitive dimension of social capital, social cohesion, is particularly relevant in ensuring farm labour availability. The results generally support hypothesis that, social capital relax farm input liquidity constraints. Formulation of rural development strategies should thus aim at promoting formation of social groups and networks, which may address input liquidity concerns.

Open Access Original Research Article

Feed Efficiency and Blood Profiles of West African Dwarf Goats Fed Pleurotus tuber-regium Biodegraded Rice Straw and Maize Offal -Brewer Yeast Slurry Mixture

M. E. Amoateng, P. Kumah, A. A. Wuanor, S. N. Carew

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734//JAERI/2018/39061

Aim: This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding Pleurotus Tuber-regium biodegraded rice straw (PTTRS) and maize offal: brewer yeast slurry mixture (MOBYS) on feed efficiency, haematological and serum biochemical profiles of West African Dwarf (WAD) goats.

Study Design: The Completely Randomized Design was used for the study.

Place and Duration of the Study: The study was conducted at the Sheep and Goat Unit section of the University of Agriculture Makurdi Livestock Teaching and Research Farm, Makurdi, Nigeria. Makurdi is located at Latitude 7º 43¹ N and Longitude 8º 31¹ E. The experiment lasted for 90 days.

Methodology: Twenty four West African Dwarf (WAD) goats weighing 8.05 kg on the average were allotted to six groups of four goats per treatment in a Completely Randomized Design for the study. The six dietary treatment groups were fed varying levels of MOBYS, and ad libitum, untreated rice straw (UTRS) and Pleurotus tuberregium treated rice straw (PTTRS) thus: T1= 100 g MOBYS and UTRS (control) ad libitum, T2=100 g MOBYS and PTTRS ad libitum, T3=200 g MOBYS and UTRS ad libitum, T4=200 g MOBYS and PTTRS ad libitum, T5=300 g MOBYS and UTRS ad libitum, and T6=300 g MOBYS and PTTRS ad libitum. Parameters measured were feed efficiency, haematological and serum biochemical profiles. On the last day of the study, blood was collected from jugular veins of the goats into previously prepared tubes and sent for analysis. The blood was analysed for haematological and serum biochemistry parameters using Midray 3500 Autohaematology Analyzer. Feed efficiency was calculated as the difference in weight between the final and initial weights divided by the amount of feed consumed between the dates the initial and final body weights were taken

Results: Feed efficiency values were 0.059, 0.061, 0.066, 0.068, 0.068 and 0.069 Kg for T1, T2, T3, T4, T5 and T6 respectively and the values showed a significant difference (P=.03). Values obtained for haematological parameters for T1, T2, T3, T4, T5 and T6 were as follows: Packed cell volume (PCV) 24.20, 24.80, 26.30, 27.00, 30.40 and 30.80%; haemoglobin (Hb) 8.50, 8.52, 9.02, 9.25, 11.20 and 11.40 g/dl; red blood cells (RBC) 13.10, 13.00, 14.12, 14.72, 15.80 and 16.20 x 106 ul; white blood cells (WBC) 8.10, 8.70, 8.80, 8.60, 8.10 and 8.70 x 106 ul; mean corpuscular volume (MCV) 22.85, 23.20, 23.70, 23.80, 24.20 and 24.80 fl; mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) 6.93, 7.02, 7.07, 7.10, 7.24 and 7.36 pg and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) 33.10, 33.40, 32.80, 33.50, 33.40 and 33.00 g/dl respectively while corresponding values for the serum biochemical parameters were: urea 17.21, 17.00, 17.30, 17.80, 17.50 and 17.60 mmol; total protein (TP) 68.60, 68.30, 69.10, 69.00, 70.70 and 70.80 g/dl; albumin (ALB) 32.10, 32.0, 32.0, 32.3, 32.8 and 32.90 g/dl; globulin (GBL) 46.48, 46.28, 46.85, 46.68, 47.88 and 47.90 g/dl; Serum Glutamic Oxaloacetic  Transaminase (SGOT) 198.10, 198.60, 198.60, 198.10, 198.80 and 198.90 iu/l; Serum Glutamic Pyruvic Transaminase (SGPT) 95.30, 96.10, 95.80, 96.00, 95.60 and 95.40 mg/dl and creatinine 101.20, 103.00, 102.10, 103.20, 102.80 and 103.00 umol/l respectively. Significant differences were observed in only the PCV (P=.03), Hb (P=.02), RBC (P=.01), GBL (P=.02) and creatinine (P=.04); in general all the haematological and serum biochemical profile values were within the reference ranges.

Conclusion: It was concluded that feeding the test inputs at increasing levels improved the feed efficiency, haematological and serum biochemical parameters of the West African Dwarf goats.

Open Access Review Article

Effect of Postharvest Application of Different Concentrations of 1-Methylcylclopropene on Quality and Shelf-life of Two Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) Cultivars

M. E. Amoateng, P. Kumah, I. Yaala

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JAERI/2018/38407

Two tomato cultivars harvested at the mature-green stage were studied to determine the effect of postharvest application of different concentrations of 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) on their quality and shelf-life. A 2 x 3 factorial arrangement in Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with three replications were used. The two cultivars ‘Eva’ and ‘Power’ were each treated with 1 ppm and 2 ppm of 1-MCP concentrations and the untreated were considered as control (0 ppm).The fruits were placed inside air-tight plastic barrels with different 1-MCP concentrations at an average temperature of 29.5°C and relative humidity of 60-75%. The 1-MCP gas was allowed to circulate in the airtight barrels with the aid of a mini fan which was attached to the lid of the barrel for 24 hours before the fruits were brought out, displayed and physico-chemical properties and shelf-life monitored. The results showed that higher concentrations of the 1-MCP (2 ppm) significantly (P≤0.01) delayed ripening as measured by changes in colour, total soluble solids and total titratable acidity. Generally, between the cultivars, ‘Eva’ fruits were significantly (P≤0.01) firmer irrespective of the 1-MCP concentration. Significantly (P≤0.01), untreated fruits (0 ppm) of both cultivars recorded higher moisture and vitamin C contents than treated fruits (1 and 2 ppm). Tomatoes treated with 1 ppm and 2 ppm of 1-MCP concentrations had delayed ripening (longer green-life) and as a result had a longer shelf-life (89 and 104 days, respectively) compared to untreated tomatoes (77 days). Clearly, the results of this research has established that the use of 1-MCP have marketable prospect for growers and traders to delay the ripening of tomatoes.