Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Planting Density and Manure on Maize (Zea mays L.) Agronomic Parameters in Bouaké, Côte d’ivoire

Ferdinand Gohi Bi Zro, Jacob N’Dri Kouassi, Damien Hebert Akré Abobi, Valère Kotchi, Konan Jean-Francois Essy

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JAERI/2018/40651

Aims: The objective of the study was to determine good practices in terms of maize planting density and the effect of manure brought to the cultivated soil on the development of maize.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in the village of Kongonékro, located 10 km from the city of Bouaké, in Côte d’Ivoire. The period of the study was from March 2016 to May 2017.

Methodology: A Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) trial with three replicates was set up. Each block consisted of nine 9 m x 1.5 m ridges. According to the treatments, 27 kg of chicken or sheep manure were brought to the soil of these microparcels, i.e. 20 t/ha. Seeding was performed using three different densities: i) five plants per m2 with a spacing of 0.3 m between plants, ii) four plants per m2 with a spacing of 0.4 m between plants; and iii) three plants per m2 with a spacing of 0.5 m between plants.

Results: Organic fertilizer treatment effect significantly improved the studied maize agronomic parameters, namely: the number of leaves, the size and internodes of plants, the number of internodes and the dry weights of cobs and seeds. However, this effect was better expressed with chicken manure when three plants were maintained per m2 with a spacing of 0.5 m between these plants.

Conclusion: Of the two organic amendments used, chicken manure proves more favorable to the cultivation of maize. On the other hand, high densities of planting seem unfavorable to this crop.

Open Access Original Research Article

Dwindling Wetland Ecosystems: A Survey of Impacts of Anthropogenic Activity on Marura Wetland, Kenya

P. M. Wanjala, J. M. Maithya, R. K. Ali, N. M. Mbithi

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-19
DOI: 10.9734/JAERI/2018/35588

Many developed and developing member States to the Ramsar Convention on conservation of Wetlands have developed their national policies on wetlands conservation and management. Management systems that, on the global extent involve community based approaches have been developed. Nevertheless, many challenges in wetland conservation and management continue to determine the existence and survival of these ecosystems. Several unlike and intensely bad threats including undesirable anthropogenic activities, within the wetland catchment areas and in the wetlands, are a threat to these delicate ecosystems. The main objective of this study was to monitor the water quality using limnological variables from different sampling points of a swamp during the flood and drought period of the wetland. Nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphates were determined. Dissolved oxygen (DO), pH, turbidity, temperature, total solids and conductivity were determined using standard analytical procedures. There were six sampling points, Sampling point 1 was on Sergoit River before water enters Marura Wetland and acted as the control and the other five sampling points were within Marura Wetland, and were sampled in two seasons, wet and dry. The three replicas were collected four times in the dry season (December 2015 to March 2016) and four times during the wet season (April to July 2016). The findings revealed that there is a statistically significant difference between the control and test sample means of nitrates, phosphates, Dissolved oxygen, pH, Turbidity, Conductivity, and Total Solids. The results reveal that there is significance value of p = 0.000, which is below 0.05., and therefore, there is a statistically significant difference among the different parameters in test samples and control. There is a statistically significant difference   in turbidity between test samples and control samples as determined by one-way ANOVA (F (11, 36) = 82.340, p = 0.000). There was a statistically significant difference in phosphates between study areas and control samples as determined by one-way ANOVA (F (11, 36) = 39.020, p = 0.000). There was a statistically significant difference in conductivity among the study areas and control samples as determined by one-way ANOVA (F (11, 36) = 651.859, p = 0.000). This study concludes that Marura Wetland is a polluted ecosystem as indicated by phosphorous, turbidity and conductivity that were above specifications by the Kenya National Water Quality Standards (KNWQS). The findings of this study provide an important baseline or insight from which to monitor future change in water quality of Marura Wetland. This study recommends that further studies should be conducted to establish the actual potential of the site and actual points of source pollution and the types of electrolytes dissolved in the waters of Marura Wetland. The study also recommends intervention by local and national authorities to safeguard this dwindling ecosystem.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Storage Methods on the Physico-Chemical and Sensory Attributes of ‘Gari’ Processed from Stored Cassava Roots Varieties

O. O. Olaleye, S. S. Afolayan, T. O. Aondo, A. B. Adeniyi

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JAERI/2018/40257

Cassava roots start to deteriorate within 2-3 days after harvest when not processed. This has posed a serious challenge to both farmers and processors alike due to lack of appropriate storage techniques. Efforts made in the past to proffer solution to these problems have centered on the successful storage of cassava roots for few weeks with a little investigation on the changes in quality attributes of cassava roots during storage. Physico-chemical and sensory analysis were evaluated in this study using standard methods; as the stored cassava roots were processed into ‘gari', at an interval of two weeks for six weeks. The moisture content of the stored root was affected by the relative humidity of the environment. An interaction between the storage period, methods, and physicochemical composition, except moisture content and protein, were not significant at P< 0.05 from a fresh product. Average acceptability score for ‘gari' processed from cassava roots stored in a trench is higher than those produced from roots stored in moist sawdust. However, the study shows a significant difference (p<0.05) between the ‘gari’ processed from cassava roots stored using the two storage methods and that produced from the controls (fresh or 0 day). The study suggested that acceptability of ‘gari' processed from cassava roots stored in trench for four weeks is the highest.

Open Access Original Research Article

Floristic Diversity and Structure of Cocoa Agro-Ecosystems in Southeastern Cameroon

V. Noiha Noumi, L. Zapfack, Adamou Bessa Bienvenu, J. R. Ngueguim, C. Chimi Djomo, V. Awé Djongmo, J. D. Ngossomo, R. M. Hamadou, B. Nyeck, N. Witanou, R. B. Tabue Mbobda

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JAERI/2018/28264

The study was carried out in two localities surrounding the national park of Lobeke in Cameroon. It aims to evaluate floristic diversity and carbon stock in Cocoa agro-ecosystems. 44 plots (25 x 25 m) were established in 15 agro-ecosystems of different ages to identify all timbers of at least 10 cm of Diameter of Breast Height (DBH). 2,676 individuals of timbers and 42 bananas belonging to 32 families, 68 genera and 74 species were recorded. The most abundant families were Malvaceae (80.1%), Mimosaceae (4.6%), Euphorbiaceae (2.5%), Cecropiaceae (2.3%), Moraceae (1.3%) and Apocynaceae (1.1%). Theobroma was the most abundant genus (79.2%), followed Albizia (4.33%), Myrianthus (1.57%), Macaranga (1.12%) and Antiaris (1.08%). Biomass was estimated at 140 Mg C.ha-1. In timbers, carbon stock was estimated at 128.7 Mg C/ha. That of litters was estimated at 7.7 Mg C/ha; herbs at 2.53 Mg C/ha; roots at 1.43 Mg C/ha and bananas at 0.5 Mg C/ha. Carbon stocks from this agro-ecosystem were compared to data recorded in Costa Rica and India. Several species used as non-timber forest products during dry season were recorded. Cocoa agro-ecosystems could be assimilated to a carbon well; and consequently as an attenuation and adaptation measure in mitigating climate change.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study of Variability and Association of Yield Attributing Traits in Durum Wheat Genotypes

Shree Krishna Adhikari, Nisha Rana, Bishnu Raj Ojha, Raju Khare, Swastika Chauhan, Dhruba Bahadur Thapa

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JAERI/2018/42077

Twenty advanced line durum genotypes were tested to assess the presence of significant variability for grain yield and yield attributing traits by using randomized complete block design with three replications for two years at research farm of Agriculture and Forestry University, Chitwan, Nepal. Mean sum of squares revealed highly significant differences among durum wheat genotypes for all traits investigated, suggesting the possibility of improving durum wheat for these traits. High heritability associated with high genetic gain was found on some traits namely; flag leaf area, 1000-kernel weight and days to heading indicates the presence of additive gene action in controlling these traits. Grain yield (GYLD), harvest index (HI), test weight (TW), days to maturity (DTM), spike length (SPKL) and peduncle length (PDNL) showed low genetic gain associated with high heritability indicates the presence of non-additive gene action in controlling related traits. Grain filling rate (GFR), harvest index, grain number per spike (GNPS), test weight, plant height (HT) and peduncle length were found significantly correlated with grain yield at both genotypic and phenotypic levels. Among these traits, grain filling rate, grain number per spike and test weight, had the maximum direct positive effect on grain yield, which can be used as effective traits for selection of superior genotypes.