Open Access Original Research Article

Growth and Yield Response of Some Rice Genotype under Different Duration of Complete Submergence

Tania Sultana, Kamal Uddin Ahamed, Nazmun Naher, Md. Shariful Islam, Md. Shahariar Jaman

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JAERI/2018/41754

Aims: An experiment was conducted to observe the effect of complete submergence at vegetative stage of plants for different duration on the growth and yield of some rice varieties.

Study Design: The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design having split plot arrangement with three replications.

Place and Duration of Study: This experiment was conducted at the department of Agricultural Botany, Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka-1207, Bangladesh between June 2016 and July 2017.

Methodology: For this experiment, different submergence duration (D0 = no submergence, D1 = six days submergence, D=ten days submergence and D3 = fourteen days submergence) and six rice varieties (V1 = BRRI dhan51, V2 = BRRI dhan46, V3 = BRRI dhan34, V4= BRRI hybrid dhan1, V5 = BRRI hybrid dhan2 and V6 = ACI hybrid1) were used. The experiment was laid out in a split plot design with three replications. The whole field was divided into three equal blocks each containing 24 plots. Each block was subdivided into four sub blocks. As such there were 12 sub blocks. Each sub blocks was encircled by the 50 cm high soil wall ridge, which was hundred percent water leakages proof. In total, there were 72 plots. The treatment was randomly assigned to each unit plot. The size of each unit plot was 3 m × 2 m. The distance between two blocks and two plots were kept 1m and 0.80 m respectively.  The plant was submerged completely in unit plot to a depth of 40 cm above the soil level. The water level was higher than the plant height. The field conditions were made as similar as possible to the conditions which occur during actual flooding in nature.

Results: All parameters were significantly affected by the submergence duration. The cultivars also significantly varied for the studied traits. The highest number of leaves was achieved in BRRI dhan51. The highest grain yield m-2 was found from D(0.62 kg) whereas the lowest yield was recorded from D3 (0.38 kg) treatment. The V4 (BRRI hybrid dhan1) produced the highest (0.78 kg) grain yield m-2 and the lowest grain weight m-2 (0.23 kg) was found from V3 (BRRI dhan34). The highest (0.85 kg) grain yield m-2 was found from the combination of D0V4 and the lowest (0.12 kg) from D3V3 treatment. The test genotypes showed wide variation in percent of yield reduction at different submergence duration. The highest percent reduction of yield (65.71) was found from the combination of D3V3 and the lowest (2.22) from D1V1 treatment.

Conclusion: BRRI dhan51 followed by BRRI hybrid dhan1 showed lower grain yield reduction % in submerged conditions compare to control by attaining good yield contributing characters and thus proved as tolerant varieties. On the other hand, BRRI dhan34 and ACI hybrid1 were susceptible to submergence.

Open Access Original Research Article

Suitability of CMS-based Interspecific Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) Hybrids as Rootstocks for Eggplant Grafting

K. Krommydas, A. Mavromatis, F. Bletsos, D. Roupakias

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/JAERI/2018/42320

Aims: The objective of the study was to determine the suitability of five newly developed CMS-based interspecific eggplant hybrids as eggplant rootstocks.

Place of Study: This study was conducted in an experimental field of the Hellenic Agricultural Organization “Demeter” (HAO “Demeter”), in Thessaloniki, Greece.

Methodology: In the grafting experiment the Greek eggplant cultivars ‘Langada’ (L), ‘Emi’ (E) and ‘Tsakoniki’ (T) were used as scions. The interspecific rootstocks viz., F1(cmsLxSI), F1(cmsExSI), F1(cmsTxSI), F1(cmsExSG) and F1(cmsTxSG) were previously developed after crossing the respective CMS eggplant lines (cmsL, cmsE and cmsT) to the wild species S. integrifiilum (SI) and S. gilo (SG). Self-grafted plants of the three eggplant scions were used as controls. For each of the 18 scion/rootstock combinations nine plants were grafted by using the cleft grafting technique and plant survival rate was recorded. The grafted plants were transplanted in the field and arranged according to the completely randomized experimental design. The number of early and total fruits and weight of early and total yield as well as some important fruit characteristics (weight, length and diameter, ratio of length to diameter, penducle length, number of penducle prickles) were recorded on per plant basis. In addition, some aspects of external fruit morphology (color, shape, presence of stripes) were also recorded.

Results: Plant survival in the hetero-grafting combinations was high (94.0%) and comparable to the self-grafted controls (96.3%). While early production was not affected by grafting, total production was improved by certain rootstocks. F1(cmsTxSI) and F1(cmsExSG) had an overall positive effect on all scions and increased total fruits by 41.4% and 31.0%, respectively, and total yield by 36.8% and 35.8%,respectively. F1(cmsLxSI) combined well with cv. ‘Langada’ increasing total fruits by 34.3% and total yield by 53.8%. Interestingly, both self- and hetero-grafting resulted in morphological alterations of the fruit which varied with respect to the scion/rootstock combination.

Conclusion: The grafting compatibility between the eggplant scions and the interspecific rootstocks was very high. A differential response to grafting of each eggplant cultivar was apparent for most of the studied yield and fruit characteristics with possible underlying scion x rootstock interactions. From a practical point of view, F1(cmsTxSI) and F1(cmsExSG) indicate high potential as eggplant rootstocks and may be considered for further evaluation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Proximate and Nutrient Composition of Some Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) Accessions of Jos- Plateau, Nigeria

Christopher Nwadike, Anthony Okere, Dickson Nwosu, Catherine Okoye, Terkimbi Vange, Benson Apuyor

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JAERI/2018/42138

The compositional analysis of some common bean and cowpea landraces of Jos plateau were carried out to determine their proximate and mineral constituents. The results revealed a wide variability and significant differences (P< 0.05) in proximate compositions with the exception of crude fibre. The percentage moisture content ranged from 9.10% - 10.27%, Protein content 21.23% -23.83%, ether extract 1.60% -2.03%, Ash 3.10% - 3.87%, Carbohydrate 57.10% - 69.23%, Crude fibre 3.60% – 4.30%. The macro and trace mineral compositions varied and were statistically significant (P < 0.05), Ca 208.33-653.33 mg/100 g, K 25.0-54.0 mg/100 g, Mg 30.0-56.0 mg/100 g, P 266.67-850.00 mg/100 g, Fe ranged between 7.07-9.80 µg/100 g , Mn 0.02 -0.03 µg/100 g, Zn 0.20-0.70 µg/100 g and B from 0.00-0.01 µg/100 g. The presences of appreciable quantities of proximate and mineral constituents in the accessions has contributed in physical, mental growth and development of the local population were they provide cheap access to nutrients sources. This high variability in mineral compositions indicates that the accessions could serve as source germplasm for developing improved varieties.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Fertilizers with Agronomic Management on the Growth and Yield of Boro Rice (cv. BRRI Dhan29) in Haor Area of Bangladesh

S. Ali, M. A. Kashem, M. A. Aziz

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/JAERI/2018/42031

The experiment was conducted at the farmers’ fields of Bahadurpur village in Dekar haor area under the Lakshmanshri union of Sadar upazila of Sunamganj district during November 2015 to May 2016 to observe the effect of fertilizer and agronomic management on growth, yield and yielding parameters of BRRI dhan29 in haor area. The experimental site was located under the Agroecological Region Sylhet Basin (AEZ-21) where the soil was moderately acidic. The experiment was designed with seven treatments including T1= Farmers’ practiced based fertilizer (180-42-42 kg ha-1 of urea-TSP-MoP), T= Bangladesh Agricultural Research Council (BARC) Recommended Dose based fertilizer (300-112-127-75-11 kg ha-1 of urea-TSP-MoP-Gypsum-ZnSO4), T= T+ Wet Irrigation, T= T+ Wet and Dry Irrigation, T= T+ Proper Seedling Age, T= T+ PSA (Proper Seedling Age), T= IPNS (Integrated Plant Nutrient System) + Proper Seedling Age + Integrated Pest Management. The test crop was BRRI dhan29. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with five farmers' replications. Data were taken on growth, yield and yield parameters of BRRI dhan29 and analysed with the help of MSTAT-C program. The plant height varied significantly and found the longest plants due to T7 except for 25 days after transplanting. The highest number of tillers hill-1 were recorded in (T7) IPNS (Integrated Plant Nutrient System) + Proper Seedling Age + Integrated Pest Management. The highest grain yield (7.95 t ha-1) and straw yield (9.85 t ha-1) were recorded from IPNS (Integrated Plant Nutrient System) + Proper Seedling Age + Integrated Pest Management over farmers' practice-based fertilizers (T1). Post-harvest soils showed a higher nutrient content in comparison to initial soil due to the application of balanced fertilizers.  

Open Access Original Research Article

Yield Evaluation and Assessment of Growth of Five Different Varieties of Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam)

P. A. Amao, S. O. Osunsanya, A. M. Afolab

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JAERI/2018/40744

Sweet potato production is on the increase worldwide, especially in the countries within the tropics. However, yields from many varieties are limited. The experiment was carried out to evaluate growth and yield of different sweet potato varieties.

The field experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design with five treatments replicated four times. The experiment was located along Parry Road, University of Ibadan Longitude 3°45’E and Latitude 7°27’N with elevation of 200-300 m above sea level. Five different varieties of sweet potato were used as treatments namely; Ex-igbaraiam, Benue, Akinima, TIS87/0087 and Eruwa. Soil samples were taken prior to planting for both physical and chemical analysis. Plant growth and yield parameters determined include vine length, number of leaves, total biomass, number of tubers and weight of tubers. Data were subjected to statistical analysis using GENSTAT 3rd edition software package. Total biomass was in order of TIS 87/0087 >Akinima> Benue >Eruwa> Ex-igbaraiam. Sweet potato tubers were significantly difference (p=0.05) with TIS 87/0087(1.72 t/ha) and Benue (1.66 t/ha) had the highest yields followed by Ex-igbaraiam (1.07 t/ha) and least by Eruwa (0.81 t/ha) and Akinima (0.77 t/ha).  Yield to total biomass ratio (a measure of conversion of biomass to yield) was in order of TIS 87/0087>Akinima>Benue > Eruwa >Ex-igbaraiam. TIS 87/0087 and Benue with highest yields are better options for farmers for optimum yield production compared to other varieties.