Stem borers have been reported as the most injurious insect pests of rice among the insects that attack rice crop globally. Management of stem borers has been relied on the use of synthetic insecticides but has been ineffective due to the cryptic nature of the attack, disruption of environment and unaffordability to purchase insecticides by small- scale farmers. The attempts to control insects have changed over time from chemicals to natural control methods. Among the various natural control methods, biopesticides and botanical extracts have received considerable attention as a viable alternative to chemical pesticides. This study was therefore aimed at evaluating the efficacy of fungi based biopesticides and botanical extracts in controlling rice stem borers in screen house under artificial infestation and in laboratory test condition at the Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania between March 2017 and January 2018. The experiment was laid out in a randomised complete block design for screen house trial and a completely randomised design for laboratory trial. All the treatments in all two trials were replicated four times. The two trials involved six treatments which includes two commercial biopesticides (Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae), two botanical extracts (Neorautanenia mitis and Derris elliptica), and one synthetic insecticide (Amekan 344EC) which was the mixture of (Cypermethrin (144 g/L) + Imidacloprid (200 g/L)) and untreated control. The results showed a significant influence of biopesticides and botanical extract in reduction Chillo partellus damage incidences, increased mortality and increased rice grain yield (p < 0.01). Both biopesticides and botanical extracts reduced damage incidences from 45% - 64.28% dead heart, 42.01% - 76.19% whitehead and decreased yield loss from 60.01% - 19.7 % caused by C. partellus. Grain yield of treated samples (4.837 – 6.387 t/ha) with the stem borer mortality rate of 57.51% - 78.12% were higher than 0 - 2.837t/ha from untreated control plots. The control measures used has shown a great influence on grain yield due to a reduction of damage incidences and increased C. partellus mortality. The study, therefore, indicated the possibility of controlling rice stem borers using fungi based biopesticides and botanical extracts.
Aim: The paper assesses the structural effects of Ebola disease outbreak on bush meat enterprise in Nigeria and its implication on biodiversity conservation.
Study Design: The study employs survey research approach.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, between January 2016 and September 2016.
Methodology: Random sampling technique was used to select 100 respondents using structured questionnaires. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics, multiple regression, and chow test.
Results: The result showed that there was a drop in the levels of sales and consumption of bush meat during the Ebola disease outbreak which lasted for three (3) months. However, bush meat sales and consumption returned to normal immediately Nigeria was declared Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) free. The regression’s result pointed out that family size and income had significant and positive relationship with level of sales of bush meat. The chow test also showed a structural change in the level of sales as a result of the Ebola outbreak.
Conclusion: It is posited that the structural change in the sales and consumption of bush meat as a result of Ebola disease outbreak presented a unique opportunity for stakeholders to formulate and implement policies that will engender forest faunal conservation in the country, through targeted investment in public education, policy implementation and awareness creation about the health and biodiversity effects of bush meat consumption.
The study aimed to find out the socio- economic profile of goat rearing farmers and to investigate the ongoing goat management practices in Sylhet district. One hundred and fifty goat rearing farmers from three districts of Sylhet were randomly selected for the study. The study revealed that a large number of respondent goat rearing farmers were middle- aged (56.67%) having a primary level education (36.67%) with large family size (55.33%). Majority of the farmers (59.33%) were labour, and most of them (81.33%) were married. Two third of the farmers were in the landless group having maximum 0.02- acre land and normally started their goat- rearing business by taking a loan from NGOs (48%) or invested their own money (49.33%). Half of the goat houses were made of tin, and most of them were without Macha (a platform little above the floor). About one- third of the farmers (36%) followed free- range system by only grazing their goat natural fodder (72.00%) and provided wheat bran (59.33%) as a concentrate feed. Most importantly, they never supplied water to the goat house. Black Bengal goat is the most preferred breed in the area. Majority of the farmers (66%) have partial knowledge about diseases, and among them, only 18.67% farmers followed regular vaccination schedule. One- third of the farmers used anthelmintic regularly. Village veterinary doctors were the main source of technical support. Moreover, 87.33% farmers buried the dead body of goat and threw (56.67%) the goat placenta to the outside. In case of a breeding system, 96.67% farmers used natural breeding and 69.33 hired bucks for breeding purpose.
The present study aims to contribute to a better sociocultural knowledge of Hibiscus cannabinus through an inventory of the local knowledge and the identification of interest characters for farmers. Seventy-two (72) accessions were collected from fifty-six (56) villages distributed in seven (7) provinces. The information has been collected through semi-structured interviews. Twelve (12) vernacular names have been counted. Their denomination by the farmers is based on the phenotypic characters such as the cycle of the plant and the seeds origin. Meanwhile, the study revealed that the farmers get their seeds from parents and friends, by a direct withdrawal in the spontaneous and cultivated ecotypes, through donation or exchange, the purchasing to the market and the massale selection. This survey also revealed a net regression of Hibiscus cannabinus farming that is always practiced mainly by a minority of Mossi and Gurunsi. Indeed, these two ethnic entities use the leaves of this plant as vegetable-leaf for the cooking of the local dishes and even sell it in the local markets. The fibers and the seeds also constitute organs of interest for the local populations. They use it for the stringing and food. The results of this study have permitted to undertake the varietal improvement of the species according to the needs of the producers.
Forty-four (44) samples of clams were obtained from three locations between Cross River and Akwa Ibom States. Genomic DNA was extracted from tissues of the clams using cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). Following DNA extraction from the tissues, ultraviolet radiation spectroscopy was used to get the concentration of the DNA isolated from the tissue. From the study, the mean gene diversity obtained was 0.8950 while polymorphic information content was 0.8860. A dendogram of the 44 samples using Weighted Neighbour – Joining (WNJ) procedure clustered them into four major groups. Group I had 78% bootstrap value, group II had 85% bootstrap value, group III had 74% bootstrap value, while group IV had 80% bootstrap. The results of genetic study of the three populations of Egeria radiata showed that they were diverse. Similarly, the principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that the four(4) clusters had samples across all the populations of clams studied, showing that there was an active migration of the clams among the three populations leading to a high genetic diversity of the clams. The implication of the results taking together showed that further genotyping should be carried out using other DNA markers that could add further understanding to the genetic diversity of clams.